Scholars will confirm that major changes affecting the rights of African Americans, were led by federal courts and the peaceful violation of laws that treated African Americans as second class citizens.
**Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. peacefully violated laws that discriminated against African Americans in housing and voting. His actions led to the passage of laws to stop such discriminatory practices and laws.
***Rosa Parks violated the law by refusing to move from her bus seat which ended segregation in public transportation.
***The Nine Black students in Little Rock Central High School violated the law which led to the integration of the high school.
***Students who conducted illegal sit-in’s at Woolworth Department Stores in Greensboro, North Carolina broke the law which led to legislation ending segregation in public accommodations.
The above are just a few of peaceful illegal actions taken by African Americans leading to reducing hate and racism in the United States.
While few Americans want tension and trauma, both serve to bring positive change in race relations. The nation is now seeking to address racist monuments, the flag and the national anthem and their affect on race relations. Because of the turmoil in Charlottesville Virginia that occurred earlier this year, a number of positive actions occurred as a result of the tension over confederate monuments.
Some of these positive changes included the following:
*Racist monuments continue to be removed from government land.
*After some hesitation, the President and the Congress spoke out on the subject.
*There is conversation on the subject of the meaning of confederate monuments across the nation.
*Peaceful monuments have been identified.
*Shortfalls in education and religious bodies are more clearly understood.
*Conflicts between confederate monuments and the constitution and Declaration of Independence continue to surface.
*More Americans are understanding that creating tension in bringing about change is often necessary.